Download the poster (soon) or read the extended text sections below

Acknowledgements:  Prof Paul Martin (IACRC & UNE), Dr Dave Berman (QMDC), Peter West (IACRC), Jade Fraser, esri Australia and the esri non-profit programme, Fullcrumapp.com

Abstract

The ubiquitous use of smart phones/devices/applications and the advancement of DIY geo-apps has resulted in a significant expansion in data repositories. Information management is ‘mission critical’, particularly for those working in community based natural resource management (NRM) sector (RGC 2010).  Significant changes have taken place since the last comprehensive assessment (West, 2008).  The aim of this research was to demonstrate systems to collect, share and analyse data in near real time, with minimal setup and infrastructure costs (incorporating legacy systems and the humble field notebook).

An initial meta-analysis was conducted to profile who, how and what data has/is being collected in relation to Australian vertebrate pests.  The very nature of the new breed of DIY geo-apps (quick, nimble, agile and possibly transient) make a comprehensive compilation difficult to document and update.  Early investigations identified the need to also consider how to effectively and efficiently Pseudonymise and de-identify personal/private information when sharing data between agencies, organisations and individuals.  Consideration also needs to be given to varying data collection methods, not only between states, and jurisdictions, but also the individual projects.  Added to this complexity is the need for robust data sharing practices and policies between different systems and organisations.  These complex components are essential considerations when it comes a system that collates information at all scales (from a site inspection, to the national scale).

As a proof of concept live, interactive dashboards were created and displayed in augmented reality.  Combined with a smartphone (or embedded touchscreen) and an internet connection it is possible to get multiples systems ‘talking’ together, to tell the broader story.

 

Introduction

To simplify the examples this paper will focus on European Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and Indian Myna birds

Indian Myna's

Biosecurity Queensland assessed Indian Mynas as an 'extreme' threat speacies.  The detailed biosecurity risk assessment completed in 2016 (QDAF, 2016).  Potential damage and key threats:

  • attack people, similar to magpies (QDAF, 2016).
  • Large roosts can spread disease (e.g. salmonellosis, Newcastle disease and Avian influenza) to people, and can cause dermatitis and asthma from mites (QDAF, 2016).
  • reduce cavity nesting spaces for native birds

QMDC is working on a number of Indian Myna control projects

Abundance changes with environmental factors, including habitat clearing and urbanisations, this makes it difficult to separate the effects of pests from environmental factors (PestSmart.org.au, 2014).

High intensity community trapping reduces Indian Myna abundance at the local (1km2) scale (Grarock et al, 2014). Culling at a rate of 25 birds per km2 per year should reduce abundance, regardless of initial density (Grarock et al, 2014).  Basic population modeling is needed to assess if potential control measures are capable of achieving desired outcomes.

Indian myna's have both a short lag period before population growth (< 3 years) and spreading to new areas (six years).  Therefore it is important to respond to new invasions rapidly before the population can grow in numbers and spread.

The key goal for collating Indian Myna data:

  1. Identify new populations (within 3 years)
  2. Estimate amount of local control activity

Database standards

Darwin Core is  'an evolving community-developed biodiversity data standard' (Wieczorek et al 2012), that defines standard terms to describe location, organism, geological context, and taxon (core classes). The authoritative form of the Darwin Core (DwC) is available from http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc.  Aditional categories cover relationshiops to other resources, measurements, and generic infomration about records (from Dublic Core e.g. type, modified, rights, rightHolder, accessRights etc).  The full set of current DwC terms with descriptios is available in the Quick Reference Guide http://rs.twdg.org/dwc/terms

Where is Darwin Core being used (and places that may have feral data):

  • MOL (Map of Life) 'one searchable map, 279 Datasets, 844,971 species, 555,744,036 Records'  (MOL, 2107).  Will soon include indicators such as species habitat suitability, species protection and data (spatial & temporal) gaps in coverage). For Rabbits this includes limited data from 5 sources, mainly in NSW.  Meese (2005) Murphy (1998), and VertNet (2015), GBIF (2016) (data supplied by )
  • GBIF Includes data from: OEH Atlas of NSW wildlife | NSW BioNet
  • Atlas of Living Australia

Methods

DIY, agile apps

Further training available online (esri, 2017).

Using data from GBIF.org methods and data applications (web services api, data user agreement).

Data from Atlas of Living Australia

Instructions on how to filter and download records, download data and create an areas report.  Use the ALA's Spatial (research) portal: http://spatial.ala.org.au (remember to register to help improve their services).  Additional notes Assertions, and Area report

e.g. Steps to map Rabbits (ALA)
Go to http://spatial.ala.org.au
Clic on Add to map | species.. enter 'Rabbit'...scroll down to Rabbit.
Filter records by Country.  Minimal records outside of Australia, for this example they aren't relevant and can be excluded from download.
Rename layer in legend.

Results

source licence Dataset
 # records
 
GBIF.org   CC-BY4.0        
ala.org.au  CC-By

 Tasmanian Natural Values Atlas

1982  
   

OEH Atlas of NSW Wildlife (also known as BioNet.

11,366  
   

SA Fauna (BDBSA)

   
   

Fauna Atlas N.T.

   
  Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial Australia 3.0 (CC BY-NC)

Questagame weekly feed

111  
  © B-L some rights reserved

iNaturalist 4.2 million observations, 108254 species, 377085 people

85  
  CCBY AU 3.0

Queensland Wildlife Data (API) - trial, also know as 'WildNet' in Queensland.  Most recent data 18/9/15

   
   

OZCAM

   
OZCAM.org.au   Atlas of Living Australia    
    Australian Museum    
    Australian National Biological Collections (CSIRO is the ustodian).    
         
         
ANBC   Australian National Insect Collection (ANIC)    
    Australian National Wildlife Collection (ANWC)    
    Australain National Fish Collection (ANFC)    
    State Museum's.    
         

Reccomendations

  • Use one, or more of the standard methods when designing your own database collection app / database.
  • Consider legal issues such as data ownership and access at the start of the data collection process.

Reference

  • ALA.org.au (2017). Atlas of Living Australia databse http://www.ala.org.au/
  • AOIC (2014) Mobile privacy: a better practice guide for mobile app developers.  Office of the Australian Information Commisioner https://www.oaic.gov.au/agencies-and-organisations/guides/guide-for-mobile-app-developers
  • BioNet the website for the Atlas of NSW wildlife.  New South Wales Government, Office of Environment and Heritage http://www.bionet.nsw.gov.au/. BioNet the website for the Atlas of NSW wildlife.
  • esri (2017) Do-It-Yourself GeoApps,  A free Online Course through Esri MOOC Program. http://www.esri.com/mooc/diy-geo-apps
  • Grarock K, Tidemann CR, Wood JT, Lindenmayer DB (2014).  Understanding basic species population dynamics for effective control: A case study on community-led culling of the common myna (Acridotheres tristis).  Biological Invasions, 16:1427.  doi: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10530-013-0580-2
  • iNaturalist.org observations.  California Academy of Sciences http://www.inaturalist.org/ Note: included in Atlas of Living Australia
  • IUCN (2015). International Union for Conservation of Nature - Red List of Threatened Species. Accessed on Sept 2015. http://www.iucnredlist.org Note: available digitally (for Rabbits) in Map of Life.
  • GBIF.org (2017) Global Biodiversity Information Facility Data Portal.  DOI: 10.15468/dl.lzlgsv.  Note: included in Map of Life database accessed on 26th October 2016.
  • Meese, R.J. (2005) Biological inventories of the world's protected areas. Information Center for the Environment, UC Davis, Davis, CA. http://www.ice.ucdavis.edu/bioinventory/bioinventory.html. Note: includes 14 Eruopean rabbit data processed by Map of Life team following WDPA V7.0.
  • Microsoft (2017). Power BI - interactive data visualisation BI [business intelligencve] tools. https://powerbi.microsoft.com/en-us/.  Note: only the free version used in this paper
  • MOL.org (2017) Map of Life database. https://mol.org
  • Murphy, M. J. (1998). Mammal survey of Seven Mile Beach National Park and Comerong Island Nature Reserve on the south coast of New South Wales. Australian Zoologist, 30(4), 419 - 425. DOI 10.7882/AZ.1998.008. Note: contains only 2 datapoints from an opportunistic search, digitised in Map of Life https://data.mol.org/downloads/pdf/Murphy.1998.pdf
  • OEH Atlas of NSW Wildlife (2016) Note: data supplied to GBIF.org, now called BioNet NSW
  • OZCAM.org.au (2017).  Online Zoological Collections of AQustralian Meseums). State Museams are the providers.  OZCAM provides data to and from Atlas of Living Australia
  • PestSmart.org.au (2014).  Case study: Common myna impacts.  Invasive Animals Ltd. http://www.pestsmart.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/IMCS1_myna.pdf
  • QDAF (2016).  Indian Myna Acridotheres tristis Invasive Animal Risk Assessment.  Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries - Bioseciurty Queensland.  Edited by Anna Markula and Martin Hannan0Jones and Steve Csurhes.
  • Questagame.com (2017).  Questagame: The real-world mobile game where you compete to save life on earth.  Note: ALA.org.au includes Questagame weekly feed, which contains Rabbit records http://collections.ala.org.au/public/show/dr1902
  • RGC (2010). Knowledge and Information Framework for Queensland regional NRM bodies. Regional Groups Collective, Toowoomba.
  • VertNet (2015). VertNet databasehttp://portal.vertnet.org Note: available in Map of Life
  • West P (2008) Assessing Invasive Animals in Australia. (National Land & Water Resources Audit and Invasive Animals CRC: Canberra, ACT, AU). http://www.feral.org.au/assessing-invasive-animals-in-australia-2008/.

  • Wieczorek, Döring, Giovanni, Robertson and Vieglais (2015) Darwin Core Terms: A quick reference guide. The Biodiversity Information Standards (TDWG) http://tdwg.github.io/dwc/terms/

  • Wieczorek J, Bloom D, Guralnick R, Blum S, Döring M, Giovanni R, et al. (2012) Darwin Core: An Evolving Community-Developed Biodiversity Data Standard. PLoS ONE 7(1): e29715. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029715